Uses of radioactive dating fayetteville dating com

Thorium forms eutectic mixtures with chromium and uranium, and it is completely miscible in both solid and liquid states with its lighter congener cerium.

All but two elements up to bismuth (element 83) have an isotope that is practically stable for all purposes ("classically stable"), with the exceptions being technetium and promethium (elements 43 and 61).

It has been suggested as a replacement for uranium as nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors, and several thorium reactors have been built.

Thorium is a moderately hard, paramagnetic, bright silvery radioactive actinide metal.

electron configuration in the ground state, as the 5f and 6d subshells in the early actinides are very close in energy, even more so than the 4f and 5d subshells of the lanthanides: thorium's 6d subshells are lower in energy than its 5f subshells, because its 5f subshells are not well-shielded by the filled 6s and 6p subshells and are destabilised.

This is due to relativistic effects, which become stronger near the bottom of the periodic table, specifically the relativistic spin–orbit interaction.

All elements from polonium (element 84) onward are measurably radioactive.

U) that have half-lives measured in billions of years; its half-life is 14.05 billion years, about three times the age of the earth, and slightly longer than the age of the universe.

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Pure thorium is very ductile and, as normal for metals, can be cold-rolled, swaged, and drawn.The closeness in energy levels of the 5f, 6d, and 7s energy levels of thorium results in thorium almost always losing all four valence electrons and occurring in its highest possible oxidation state of 4.This is different from its lanthanide congener cerium, in which 4 is also the highest possible state, but 3 plays an important role and is more stable.Thorium is an electropositive actinide whose chemistry is dominated by the 4 oxidation state; it is quite reactive and can ignite in air when finely divided. The most stable isotope of thorium, It is estimated to be over three times more abundant than uranium in the Earth's crust, and is chiefly refined from monazite sands as a by-product of extracting rare-earth metals.Thorium was discovered in 1829 by the Norwegian amateur mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark and identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder.

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